English dictionary of Marketing

English dictionary of Marketing

 English dictionary of Marketing

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A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

A
achieve ; accomplish ; attain ; reach
to gain with effort; "she achieved her goal despite setbacks"

address
the place where a person or organization can be found or communicated with

adjudication
the final judgment in a legal proceeding; the act of pronouncing judgment based on the evidence presented

advertisement ; ad ; advertising ; advert
a public promotion of some product or service

affect
have an effect upon; "Will the new rules affect me?"

aim ; object ; objective ; target
the goal intended to be attained (and which is believed to be attainable); "the sole object of her trip was to see her children"

allowance
an amount allowed or granted (as during a given period); "travel allowance"; "my weekly allowance of two eggs"; "a child's allowance should not be too generous"

amount
the relative magnitude of something with reference to a criterion; "an adequate amount of food for four people"

analysis ; analytic thinking
the abstract separation of a whole into its constituent parts in order to study the parts and their relations

apportionment ; allocation
the act of distributing by allotting or apportioning; distribution according to a plan; "the apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives is based on the relative population of each state"

appraisal ; assessment
the classification of someone or something with respect to its worth

arrangement ; organization ; organisation
an organized structure for arranging or classifying; "he changed the arrangement of the topics"; "the facts were familiar but it was in the organization of them that he was original"; "he tried to understand their system of classification"

assortment
a collection containing a variety of sorts of things; "a great assortment of cars was on display"; "he had a variety of disorders"; "a veritable smorgasbord of religions"

author
someone who originates or causes or initiates something; "he was the generator of several complaints"

authorization ; authorisation
the act of conferring legality or sanction or formal warrant

avail
a means of serving; "of no avail"; "there's no help for it"


B
backing
the act of providing approval and support; "his vigorous backing of the conservatives got him in trouble with progressives"

bendability ; pliability
the property of being easily bent without breaking

beneficial ; good
promoting or enhancing well-being; "an arms limitation agreement beneficial to all countries"; "the beneficial effects of a temperate climate"; "the experience was good for her"

bid ; tender
a formal proposal to buy at a specified price

brand ; make
a recognizable kind; "there's a new brand of hero in the movies now"; "what make of car is that?"

brand name ; brand
a name given to a product or service

budget
a sum of money allocated for a particular purpose; "the laboratory runs on a budget of a million a year"

bulk ; volume
the property of something that is great in magnitude; "it is cheaper to buy it in bulk"; "he received a mass of correspondence"; "the volume of exports"

business cycle ; trade cycle
recurring fluctuations in economic activity consisting of recession and recovery and growth and decline

buying ; purchasing
the act of buying; "buying and selling fill their days"; "shrewd purchasing requires considerable knowledge"


C
case ; instance
an occurrence of something; "it was a case of bad judgment"; "another instance occurred yesterday"; "but there is always the famous example of the Smiths"

categorization ; categorisation ; classification
the act of distributing things into classes or categories of the same type

chance ; opportunity
a possibility due to a favorable combination of circumstances; "the holiday gave us the opportunity to visit Washington"; "now is your chance"

charge
the price charged for some article or service; "the admission charge"

class ; stratum ; social class
people having the same social, economic, or educational status; "the working class"; "an emerging professional class"

client
a person who seeks the advice of a lawyer

club ; society ; guild
a formal association of people with similar interests; "he joined a golf club"; "they formed a small lunch society"; "men from the fraternal order will staff the soup kitchen today"

collection
several things grouped together or considered as a whole

combination
a sequence of numbers or letters that opens a combination lock; "he forgot the combination to the safe"

combination ; combining
the act of combining things to form a new whole

commitment ; allegiance ; loyalty
the act of binding yourself (intellectually or emotionally) to a course of action; "his long commitment to public service"; "they felt no loyalty to a losing team"

commodity
articles of commerce

communication ; communicating
the activity of communicating; the activity of conveying information; "they could not act without official communication from Moscow"

company
an institution created to conduct business; "he only invests in large well-established companies"; "he started the company in his garage"

company ; companionship ; society
the state of being with someone; "he missed their company"; "he enjoyed the society of his friends"

competition
a business relation in which two parties compete to gain customers; "business competition can be fiendish at times"

competitor ; rival ; challenger
the contestant you hope to defeat; "he had respect for his rivals"; "he wanted to know what the competition was doing"

complexity ; complexness
the quality of being intricate and compounded; "he enjoyed the complexity of modern computers"

confirmation ; verification ; check ; substantiation
additional proof that something that was believed (some fact or hypothesis or theory) is correct; "fossils provided further confirmation of the evolutionary theory"

consumer
a person who uses goods or services

consumption
the act of consuming something

consumption
(economics) the utilization of economic goods to satisfy needs or in manufacturing; "the consumption of energy has increased steadily"

contentment
happiness with one's situation in life

contest ; competition
an occasion on which a winner is selected from among two or more contestants

control
power to direct or determine; "under control"

copy
a thing made to be similar or identical to another thing; "she made a copy of the designer dress"; "the clone was a copy of its ancestor"

copy ; imitate
reproduce someone's behavior or looks; "The mime imitated the passers-by"; "Children often copy their parents or older siblings"

copy ; re-create
make a replica of; "copy that drawing"; "re-create a picture by Rembrandt"

copyright ; right of first publication
a document granting exclusive right to publish and sell literary or musical or artistic work

corporation ; corp
a business firm whose articles of incorporation have been approved in some state

culture ; civilization
a particular society at a particular time and place; "early Mayan civilization"

custom ; usage
accepted or habitual practice

customer ; client
someone who pays for goods or services

cycle
an interval during which a recurring sequence of events occurs; "the never-ending cycle of the seasons"


D
data ; information
a collection of facts from which conclusions may be drawn; "statistical data"

database
an organized body of related information

decision ; determination ; conclusion
a position or opinion or judgment reached after consideration; "a decision unfavorable to the opposition"; "his conclusion took the evidence into account"; "satisfied with the panel's determination"

decree ; edict ; fiat ; order
a legally binding command or decision entered on the court record (as if issued by a court or judge); "a friend in New Mexico said that the order caused no trouble out there"

demand
the ability and desire to purchase goods and services; "the automobile reduced the demand for buggywhips"; "the demand exceeded the supply"

demography ; human ecology
the branch of sociology that studies the characteristics of human populations

dependability ; dependableness ; reliability
the quality of being dependable or reliable

depression
a mental state characterized by a pessimistic sense of inadequacy and a despondent lack of activity

depression ; slump
a long-term economic state characterized by unemployment and low prices and low levels of trade and investment

designation ; identification
the act of designating or identifying something

development
act of improving by expanding or enlarging or refining; "he congratulated them on their development of a plan to meet the emergency"; "they funded research and development"

differentiation
(biology) the structural adaptation of some body part for a particular function; "cell differentiation in the developing embryo"

differentiation ; distinction
a discrimination between things as different and distinct; "it is necessary to make a distinction between love and infatuation"

disposition ; temperament
your usual mood; "he has a happy disposition"

distribution
the commercial activity of transporting and selling goods from a producer to a consumer

distribution ; dispersion
the spatial or geographic property of being scattered about over a range, area, or volume; "worldwide in distribution"; "the distribution of nerve fibers"; "in complementary distribution"

distributor ; distributer
someone who markets merchandise

division ; partition ; segmentation
the act of dividing or partitioning; separation by the creation of a boundary that divides or keeps apart

due
a payment that is due (e.g., as the price of membership); "the society dropped him for non-payment of dues"

dumping
selling goods abroad at a price below that charged in the domestic market


E
elasticity ; snap
the tendency of a body to return to its original shape after it has been stretched or compressed; "the waistband had lost its snap"

environment
the totality of surrounding conditions; "he longed for the comfortable environment of his living room"

environment ; environs ; surroundings
the area in which something exists or lives; "the country--the flat agricultural surround"

estimation
an approximate calculation of quantity or degree or worth; "an estimate of what it would cost"; "a rough idea how long it would take"

evaluation ; rating
act of ascertaining or fixing the value or worth of

evolution ; development
a process in which something passes by degrees to a different stage (especially a more advanced or mature stage); "the development of his ideas took many years"; "the evolution of Greek civilization"; "the slow development of her skill as a writer"

exchange
a workplace for buying and selling; open only to members

exchange ; interchange
the act of changing one thing for another thing; "Adam was promised immortality in exchange for his disobedience"; "there was an interchange of prisoners"

execution ; implementation
the act of accomplishing some aim or executing some order; "the agency was created for the implementation of the policy"

experiment ; experimentation
the act of conducting a controlled test or investigation

exporting ; exportation
the commercial activity of selling and shipping goods to a foreign country


F
fee
a fixed charge for a privilege or for professional services

feedback
the process in which part of the output of a system is returned to its input in order to regulate its further output

fidelity ; faithfulness
the quality of being faithful

flexibility ; flexibleness
the property of being flexible; easily bent or shaped

frequency
the number of occurrences within a given time period; "the frequency of modulation was 40 cycles per second"; "the frequency of his seizures increased as he grew older"

frequency ; relative frequency
the ratio of the number of observations in a statistical category to the total number of observations

future ; futurity
the time yet to come


G
give ; springiness
the elasticity of something that can be stretched and returns to its original length

globalization ; globalisation
growth to a global or worldwide scale; "the globalization of the communication industry"

goal ; destination
the place designated as the end (as of a race or journey); "a crowd assembled at the finish"; "he was nearly exhausted as their destination came into view"

good ; goodness
that which is pleasing or valuable or useful; "weigh the good against the bad"; "among the highest goods of all are happiness and self-realization"

good ; upright
of moral excellence; "a genuinely good person"; "a just cause"; "an upright and respectable man"

guarantee ; ensure ; assure ; secure
make certain of; "This nest egg will ensure a nice retirement for us"; "Preparation will guarantee success!"

guarantee ; guaranty
a collateral agreement to answer for the debt of another in case that person defaults

guarantee ; warranty
a written assurance that some product or service will be provided or will meet certain specifications


H
habit ; use
(psychology) an automatic pattern of behavior in reaction to a specific situation; may be inherited or acquired through frequent repetition; "owls have nocturnal habits"; "she had a habit twirling the ends of her hair"; "long use had hardened him to it"

handiness ; accessibility ; availability
the quality of being at hand when needed

help ; aid ; assistance
the activity of contributing to the fulfillment of a need or furtherance of an effort or purpose; "he gave me an assist with the housework"; "could not walk without assistance"; "rescue party went to their aid"; "offered his help in unloading"

heterogeneity ; heterogeneousness
the quality of being diverse and not comparable in kind

home ; place
where you live at a particular time; "deliver the package to my home"; "he doesn't have a home to go to"; "your place or mine?"

hypothesis
a tentative insight into the natural world; a concept that is not yet verified but that if true would explain certain facts or phenomena; "a scientific hypothesis that survives experimental testing becomes a scientific theory"; "he proposed a fresh theory of alkalis that later was accepted in chemical practices"


I
idea ; thought
the content of cognition; the main thing you are thinking about; "it was not a good idea"; "the thought never entered my mind"

identify ; place
recognize as being; establish the identity of someone or something; "She identified the man on the 'wanted' poster"

image
the general impression that something (a person or organization or product) presents to the public; "although her popular image was contrived it served to inspire music and pageantry"; "the company tried to project an altruistic image"

importance
the quality of being important and worthy of note; "the importance of a well-balanced diet"

income
the financial gain (earned or unearned) accruing over a given period of time

influence
have and exert influence or effect; "The artist's work influenced the young painter"; "She worked on her friends to support the political candidate"

informant ; source
a person who supplies information

information
knowledge acquired through study or experience or instruction

information ; info
a message received and understood

integration
the action of incorporating a racial or religious group into a community

interest ; involvement
a sense of concern with and curiosity about someone or something; "an interest in music"

internet
a computer network consisting of a worldwide network of computer networks that use the TCP/IP network protocols to facilitate data transmission and exchange

intranet
a restricted computer network; a private network created using World Wide Web software

invest
make an investment; "Put money into bonds"


K
knowledge
the psychological result of perception and learning and reasoning


L
lawsuit ; case ; cause
a comprehensive term for any proceeding in a court of law whereby an individual seeks a legal remedy; "the family brought suit against the landlord"

layout
a plan or design of something that is laid out

learning ; acquisition
the cognitive process of acquiring skill or knowledge; "the child's acquisition of language"

levy
a charge imposed and collected

litigation ; judicial proceeding
a legal proceeding in a court; a judicial contest to determine and enforce legal rights

location
a point or extent in space

logistics
handling an operation that involves providing labor and materials be supplied as needed

loyalty ; trueness
the quality of being loyal


M
management
those in charge of running a business

management ; direction
the act of managing something; "he was given overall management of the program"; "is the direction of the economy a function of government?"

market
the world of commercial activity where goods and services are bought and sold; "without competition there would be no market"; "they were driven from the marketplace"

marketing
the commercial processes involved in promoting and selling and distributing a product or service; "most companies have a manager in charge of marketing"

marketplace ; market place ; mart ; market
an area in a town where a public mercantile establishment is set up

meaning ; significance ; import
the message that is intended or expressed or signified; "what is the meaning of this sentence"; "the significance of a red traffic light"; "the signification of Chinese characters"; "the import of his announcement was ambiguous"

measurement ; measuring ; mensuration
the act or process of assigning numbers to phenomena according to a rule; "the measurements were carefully done"; "his mental measurings proved remarkably accurate"

merchandise ; ware
commodities offered for sale; "good business depends on having good merchandise"; "that store offers a variety of products"

milieu ; surroundings
the environmental condition

mission ; military mission
an operation that is assigned by a higher headquarters; "the planes were on a bombing mission"

mixture
(chemistry) a substance consisting of two or more substances mixed together (not in fixed proportions and not with chemical bonding)

monopoly
(economics) a market in which there are many buyers but only one seller; "a monopoly on silver"; "when you have a monopoly you can ask any price you like"

motivation ; motive
the psychological feature that arouses an organism to action toward a desired goal; the reason for the action; that which gives purpose and direction to behavior; "we did not understand his motivation"; "he acted with the best of motives"


N
nature
the essential qualities or characteristics by which something is recognized; "it is the nature of fire to burn"; "the true nature of jealousy"

negotiation
a discussion intended to produce an agreement; "the buyout negotiation lasted several days"; "they disagreed but kept an open dialogue"; "talks between Israelis and Palestinians"


O
offer ; offering
the verbal act of offering; "a generous offer of assistance"

oligopoly
(economics) a market in which control over the supply of a commodity is in the hands of a small number of producers and each one can influence prices and affect competitors

opinion ; ruling
the reason for a court's judgment (as opposed to the decision itself)

opinion ; view ; thought
a personal belief or judgment that is not founded on proof or certainty; "my opinion differs from yours"; "I am not of your persuasion"; "what are your thoughts on Haiti?"

opportunity cost
cost in terms of foregoing alternatives

ordering ; order
logical or comprehensible arrangement of separate elements; "we shall consider these questions in the inverse order of their presentation"

organization ; organisation
a group of people who work together

orientation
position or alignment relative to points of the compass or other specific directions

origin ; source
the place where something begins, where it springs into being; "the Italian beginning of the Renaissance"; "Jupiter was the origin of the radiation"; "Pittsburgh is the source of the Ohio River"; "communism's Russian root"


P
packaging
material used to make packages

participation
the act of sharing in the activities of a group; "the teacher tried to increase his students' engagement in class activities"

pass on ; give
place into the hands or custody of; "hand me the spoon, please"; "Turn the files over to me, please"; "He turned over the prisoner to his lawyers"

percept ; perception
the representation of what is perceived; basic component in the formation of a concept

perception
the process of perceiving

personality
the complex of all the attributes--behavioral, temperamental, emotional and mental--that characterize a unique individual; "their different reactions reflected their very different personalities"; "it is his nature to help others"

picture ; image
a visual representation (of an object or scene or person or abstraction) produced on a surface; "they showed us the pictures of their wedding"; "a movie is a series of images projected so rapidly that the eye integrates them"

place
a point located with respect to surface features of some region; "this is a nice place for a picnic"; "a bright spot on a planet"

place
the post or function properly or customarily occupied or served by another; "can you go in my stead?"; "took his place"; "in lieu of"

planning
the act or process of drawing up plans or layouts for some project or enterprise

population
the people who inhabit a territory or state; "the population seemed to be well fed and clothed"

position ; place
the particular portion of space occupied by something; "he put the lamp back in its place"

position ; post ; place ; situation
a job in an organization; "he occupied a post in the treasury"

practice ; pattern
a customary way of operation or behavior; "it is their practice to give annual raises"; "they changed their dietary pattern"

prediction ; forecasting ; prognostication
a statement made about the future

prediction ; prevision
the act of predicting (as by reasoning about the future)

price
determine the price of; "The grocer priced his wares high"

price
the amount of money needed to purchase something; "the price of gasoline"; "he got his new car on excellent terms"; "how much is the damage?"

price
the high value or worth of something; "her price is far above rubies"

price ; cost
value measured by what must be given or done or undergone to obtain something; "the cost in human life was enormous"; "the price of success is hard work"; "what price glory?"

procedure ; process
a particular course of action intended to achieve a result; "the procedure of obtaining a driver's license"; "it was a process of trial and error"

process ; physical process
a sustained phenomenon or one marked by gradual changes through a series of states; "events now in process"; "the process of calcification begins later for boys than for girls"

product ; production
an artifact that has been created by someone or some process; "they improve their product every year"; "they export most of their agricultural production"

productiveness ; productivity
the quality of being productive or having the power to produce

prognosis ; forecast
a prediction about how something (as the weather) will develop

promotion ; advancement
encouragement of the progress or growth or acceptance of something

promotion ; publicity
a message issued in behalf of some product or cause or idea or person or institution; "the packaging of new ideas"

proposal
something proposed (such as a plan or assumption)

prosperity ; successfulness
the condition of prospering; having good fortune

psychology ; psychological science
the science of mental life

public relations ; PR
a promotion intended to create goodwill for a person or institution

purchase
the acquisition of something for payment; "they closed the purchase with a handshake"

purpose ; function
what something is used for; "the function of an auger is to bore holes"; "ballet is beautiful but what use is it?"

put ; set ; place ; position ; lay
put into a certain place or abstract location; "Put your things here"; "Set the tray down"; "Set the dogs on the scent of the missing children"; "Place emphasis on a certain point"


Q
quality
an essential and distinguishing attribute of something or someone; "the quality of mercy is not strained"--Shakespeare

questionnaire
a form containing a set of questions; submitted to people to gain statistical information


R
range ; scope
an area in which something acts or operates or has power or control: "the range of a supersonic jet"; "a piano has a greater range than the human voice"; "the ambit of municipal legislation"; "within the compass of this article"; "within the scope of an investigation"; "outside the reach of the law"; "in the political orbit of a world power"

rate ; grade
assign a rank or rating to; "how would you rank these students?"; "The restaurant is rated highly in the food guide"

reach ; attain
reach a destination, either real or abstract; "We hit Detroit by noon"; "The water reached the doorstep"; "We barely made it to the finish line"; "I have to hit the MAC machine before the weekend starts"

reach ; range
the limits within which something can be effective; "range of motion"; "he was beyond the reach of their fire"

recession
the state of the economy declines; a widespread decline in the GDP and employment and trade lasting from six months to a year

recipient ; receiver
a person who receives something

relation
an abstraction belonging to or characteristic of two entities or parts together

research
systematic investigation to establish facts

resolution ; declaration
a formal expression by a meeting; agreed to by a vote

retailer ; retail merchant
a merchant who sells goods at retail

rivalry
the act of competing as for profit or a prize; "the teams were in fierce contention for first place"


S
sample
a small part of something intended as representative of the whole

sample ; try ; try out ; taste
take a sample of; "Try these new crackers"; "Sample the regional dishes"

scheduling
setting an order and time for planned events

scheme ; strategy
an elaborate and systematic plan of action

security
the state of being free from danger or injury; "we support the armed services in the name of national security"

sense ; signified
the meaning of a word or expression; the way in which a word or expression or situation can be interpreted; "the dictionary gave several senses for the word"; "in the best sense charity is really a duty"; "the signifier is linked to the signified"

service
work done by one person or group that benefits another; "budget separately for goods and services"

service ; serve
be used by; as of a utility; "The sewage plant served the neighboring communities"; "The garage served to shelter his horses"

shopper
someone who visits stores in search of articles to buy

significance
the quality of being significant; "do not underestimate the significance of nuclear power"

skilful ; adept ; expert ; skillful
having or showing knowledge and skill and aptitude; "adept in handicrafts"; "an adept juggler"; "an expert job"; "a good mechanic"; "a practiced marksman"; "a proficient engineer"; "a lesser-known but no less skillful composer"; "the effect was achieved by skillful retouching"

society
an extended social group having a distinctive cultural and economic organization

speculation
a message expressing an opinion based on incomplete evidence

sponsorship
the act of sponsoring (either officially or financially)

steering ; steerage
the act of steering a ship

subsidy
a grant paid by a government to an enterprise that benefits the public; "a subsidy for research in artificial intelligence"

substitution
the act of putting one thing or person in the place of another: "he sent Smith in for Jones but the substitution came too late to help"

supervision ; supervising
management by overseeing the performance or operation of a person or group

suppleness
the property of being pliant and flexible

support
the activity of providing for or maintaining by supplying with money or necessities; "his support kept the family together"; "they gave him emotional support during difficult times"

system ; scheme
a group of independent but interrelated elements comprising a unified whole; "a vast system of production and distribution and consumption keep the country going"


T
technology
the discipline dealing with the art or science of applying scientific knowledge to practical problems; "he had trouble deciding which branch of engineering to study"

technology ; engineering
the practical application of science to commerce or industry

telemarketing ; teleselling ; telecommerce
the use of the telephone as an interactive medium for promotion and sales

term
a word or expression used for some particular thing; "he learned many medical terms"

trademark
a formally registered symbol identifying the manufacturer or distributor of a product

transcript ; copy
a reproduction of a written record (e.g. of a legal or school record)

transport ; shipping ; transportation
the commercial enterprise of moving goods and materials

transportation ; transport ; transfer ; conveyance
the act of moving something from one location to another

trend ; tendency
a general direction in which something tends to move; "the shoreward tendency of the current"; "the trend of the stock market"

trial
(law) the determination of a person's innocence or guilt by due process of law; "he had a fair trial and the jury found him guilty"; "most of these complaints are settled before they go to trial"


U
utilitarianism
doctrine that the useful is the good; especially as elaborated by Jeremy Bentham and James Mill; the aim was said to be the greatest happiness for the greatest number


V
validity ; validness
the quality of having legal force or effectiveness

value
the quality (positive or negative) that renders something desirable or valuable; "the Shakespearean Shylock is of dubious value in the modern world"

variability ; variableness
the quality of being subject to variation

variable
a symbol (like x or y) that is used in mathematical or logical expressions to represent a variable quantity

visualise ; envision ; fancy
imagine; conceive of; see in one's mind; "I can't see him on horseback!"; "I can see what will happen"; "I can see a risk in this strategy"


W
wealth ; riches
an abundance of material possessions and resources

website ; site
a computer connected to the internet that maintains a series of web pages on the World Wide Web; "the Israeli web site was damaged by hostile hackers"

wholesale
the selling of goods to merchants; usually in large quantities for resale to consumers

wholesaler
someone who buys large quantities of goods and resells to merchants rather than to the ultimate customers

worth
the quality that renders something desirable or valuable or useful

worthiness
the quality or state of having merit or value


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