English dictionary of Science

English dictionary of Science

 English dictionary of Science

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A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

A
affect
have an effect upon; "Will the new rules affect me?"

algorithm
a precise rule (or set of rules) specifying how to solve some problem

alternative
one of a number of things from which only one can be chosen; "what option did I have?"; "there no other alternative"; "my only choice is to refuse"

analysis ; analytic thinking
the abstract separation of a whole into its constituent parts in order to study the parts and their relations

anomaly ; anomalousness
deviation from the normal or common order or form or rule

answer ; reply ; response
a statement (either spoken or written) that is made to reply to a question or request or criticism or accusation; "I waited several days for his answer"; "he wrote replies to several of his critics"

anthropology
the social science that studies the origins and social relationships of human beings

antimatter
matter consisting of elementary particles that are the antiparticles of those making up normal substances

appliance ; contrivance ; convenience ; gadget
a device or control that is very useful for a particular job

archive
a depository containing historical records and documents

arrangement ; organization ; organisation
an organized structure for arranging or classifying; "he changed the arrangement of the topics"; "the facts were familiar but it was in the organization of them that he was original"; "he tried to understand their system of classification"

artificial intelligence ; AI
the branch of computer science that deal with writing computer programs that can solve problems creatively; "workers in AI hope to imitate or duplicate intelligence in computers and robots"

astronomy ; uranology
the branch of physics that studies celestial bodies and the universe as a whole

astrophysics
the branch of astronomy concerned with the physical and chemical properties of celestial bodies

atom
(physics and chemistry) the smallest component of an element having the chemical properties of the element

axis
a straight line through a body or figure that satisfies certain conditions

axis ; axis of rotation
the center around which something rotates


B
bacteriology
the branch of medical science that studies bacteria in relation to disease

bandwidth
a data transmission rate; the maximum amount of information (bits/second) that can be transmitted along a channel

biochemistry
the organic chemistry of compounds and processes occurring in organisms; the effort to understand biology within the context of chemistry

biology ; biological science
the science that studies living organisms

book ; volume
physical objects consisting of a number of pages bound together; "he used a large book as a doorstop"

botany ; phytology
the branch of biology that studies plants

bulk ; volume
the property of something that is great in magnitude; "it is cheaper to buy it in bulk"; "he received a mass of correspondence"; "the volume of exports"


C
calculation ; computation
the procedure of calculating; determining something by mathematical or logical methods

categorization ; categorisation ; classification
the act of distributing things into classes or categories of the same type

cause
events that provide the generative force that is the origin of something; "they are trying to determine the cause of the crash"

cell
(biology) the basic structural and functional unit of all organisms; they may exist as independent units of life (as in monads) or may form colonies or tissues as in higher plants and animals

charge ; electric charge
the quantity of unbalanced electricity in a body (either positive or negative) and construed as an excess or deficiency of electrons; "the battery needed a fresh charge"

chart
a visual display of information

chemical element ; element
any of the more than 100 known substances (of which 92 occur naturally) that cannot be separated into simpler substances and that singly or in combination constitute all matter

chemistry ; chemical science
the science of matter; the branch of the natural sciences dealing with the composition of substances and their properties and reactions

citation ; quotation
a short note recognizing a source of information or of a quoted passage; "the student's essay failed to list several important citations"; "the acknowledgments are usually printed at the front of a book"; "the article includes mention of similar clinical cases"

clone ; clon
a group of genetically identical cells or organisms derived from a single cell or individual by some kind of asexual reproduction

cognitive science
the field of science concerned with cognition; includes parts of cognitive psychology and linguistics and computer science and cognitive neuroscience and philosophy of mind

comparison ; comparing
the act of examining resemblances; "they made a comparison of noise levels"; "the fractions selected for comparison must require pupils to consider both numerator and denominator"

component
an artifact that is one of the individual parts of which a composite entity is made up; especially a part that can be separated from or attached to a system; "spare components for cars"; "a component or constituent element of a system"

compound ; chemical compound
(chemistry) a substance formed by chemical union of two or more elements or ingredients in definite proportion by weight

computer science ; computing
the branch of engineering science that studies (with the aid of computers) computable processes and structures

consequence ; effect ; outcome ; result ; issue
a phenomenon that follows and is caused by some previous phenomenon; "the magnetic effect was greater when the rod was lengthwise"; "his decision had depressing consequences for business"; "he acted very wise after the event"

control
power to direct or determine; "under control"

copy
a thing made to be similar or identical to another thing; "she made a copy of the designer dress"; "the clone was a copy of its ancestor"

correlation
a statistic representing how closely two variables co-vary; it can vary from -1 (perfect negative correlation) through 0 (no correlation) to +1 (perfect positive correlation); "what is the correlation between those two variables?"

cybernetics
(biology) the field of science concerned with processes of communication and control (especially the comparison of these processes in biological and artificial systems)


D
data ; information
a collection of facts from which conclusions may be drawn; "statistical data"

decision ; determination ; conclusion
a position or opinion or judgment reached after consideration; "a decision unfavorable to the opposition"; "his conclusion took the evidence into account"; "satisfied with the panel's determination"

decision making ; deciding
the cognitive process of reaching a decision; "a good executive must be good at decision making"

dependent
relying on or requiring a person or thing for support, supply, or what is needed; "dependent children"; "dependent on moisture"

device
an instrumentality invented for a particular purpose; "the device is small enough to wear on your wrist"; "a device intended to conserve water"

digit ; figure
one of the elements that collectively form a system of numeration; "0 and 1 are digits"

discipline ; field
a branch of knowledge; "in what discipline is his doctorate?"; "teachers should be well trained in their subject"; "anthropology is the study of human beings"

discovery ; find
a productive insight

discovery ; find
the act of discovering something

dissertation ; thesis
a treatise advancing a new point of view resulting from research; usually a requirement for an advanced academic degree

Doctor of Science ; DS ; ScD
an honorary degree in science

document
writing that provides information (especially information of an official nature)


E
ecology ; bionomics
the branch of biology concerned with the relations between organisms and their environment

economics
the branch of social science that deals with the production and distribution and consumption of goods and services and their management

education
knowledge acquired by learning and instruction; "it was clear that he had a very broad education"

education ; instruction ; teaching ; pedagogy
the activities of educating or instructing; activities that impart knowledge or skill; "he received no formal education"; "our instruction was carefully programmed"; "good classroom teaching is seldom rewarded"

electrical engineering ; EE
the branch of engineering science that studies the uses of electricity and the equipment for power generation and distribution and the control of machines and communication

electron ; negatron
an elementary particle with negative charge

element
an abstract part of something; "jealousy was a component of his character"; "two constituents of a musical composition are melody and harmony"; "the grammatical elements of a sentence"; "a key factor in her success"; "humor: an effective ingredient of a speech"

end product ; output
final product; the things produced

energy ; free energy
(physics) a thermodynamic quantity equivalent to the capacity of a physical system to do work; the units of energy are joules or ergs; "energy can take a wide variety of forms"

engineer ; technologist
a person who uses scientific knowledge to solve practical problems

entropy
(communication theory) a numerical measure of the uncertainty of an outcome; "the signal contained thousands of bits of information"

environment
the totality of surrounding conditions; "he longed for the comfortable environment of his living room"

environment ; environs ; surroundings
the area in which something exists or lives; "the country--the flat agricultural surround"

epidemiology
the branch of medical science dealing with the transmission and control of disease

equation
a mathematical statement that two expressions are equal

ergonomics
the branch of engineering science in which biological science is used to study the relation between workers and their environments

event
something that happens at a given place and time

evidence
an indication that makes something evident; "his trembling was evidence of his fear"

evolution ; development
a process in which something passes by degrees to a different stage (especially a more advanced or mature stage); "the development of his ideas took many years"; "the evolution of Greek civilization"; "the slow development of her skill as a writer"

examination ; exam ; test
a set of questions or exercises evaluating skill or knowledge; "when the test was stolen the professor had to make a new set of questions"

example ; instance
an item of information that is typical of a class or group; "this patient provides a typical example of the syndrome"; "there is an example on page 10"

experiment ; experimentation
the act of conducting a controlled test or investigation


F
fact
a piece of information about circumstances that exist or events that have occurred; "first you must collect all the facts of the case"

farming ; agriculture ; husbandry
the practice of cultivating the land or raising stock

figure ; fig
a diagram or picture illustrating textual material; "the area covered can be seen from Figure 2"

fuzzy logic
a form of mathematical logic in which truth can assume a continuum of values between 0 and 1


G
gas ; gaseous state
the state of matter distinguished from the solid and liquid states by: relatively low density and viscosity; relatively great expansion and contraction with changes in pressure and temperature; the ability to diffuse readily; and the spontaneous tendency to become distributed uniformly throughout any container

genetics ; genetic science
the branch of biology that studies heredity and variation in organisms

geology
a science that deals with the history of the earth as recorded in rocks

graph ; graphical record
a visual representation of the relations between certain quantities plotted with reference to a set of axes


H
hydrology
the branch of geology that studies water on the earth and in the atmosphere: its distribution and uses and conservation

hypothesis
a tentative insight into the natural world; a concept that is not yet verified but that if true would explain certain facts or phenomena; "a scientific hypothesis that survives experimental testing becomes a scientific theory"; "he proposed a fresh theory of alkalis that later was accepted in chemical practices"


I
immunology
the branch of medical science that studies the body's immune system

independence ; independency
freedom from control or influence of another or others

independent
free from external control and constraint; "an independent mind"; "a series of independent judgments"; "fiercely independent individualism"

influence
a power to affect persons or events especially power based on prestige etc; "used her parents' influence to get the job"

influence
have and exert influence or effect; "The artist's work influenced the young painter"; "She worked on her friends to support the political candidate"

information
knowledge acquired through study or experience or instruction

information ; info
a message received and understood

information science ; informatics
the sciences concerned with gathering, manipulating, storing, retrieving, and classifying recorded information

institute
an association organized to promote art or science or education

instrument
a device that requires skill for proper use

interaction
a mutual or reciprocal action; interacting

invention
the creation of something in the mind

ion
a particle that is electrically charged (positive or negative); an atom or molecule or group that has lost or gained one or more electrons

issue
an important question that is in dispute and must be settled; "the issue could be settled by requiring public education for everyone"; "politicians never discuss the real issues"

issue ; publication
the act of issuing printed materials


J
journal
a periodical dedicated to a particular subject; "he reads the medical journals"


K
kernel ; substance ; core ; essence ; gist ; heart ; nub
the choicest or most essential or most vital part of some idea or experience; "the gist of the prosecutor's argument"; "the heart and soul of the Republican Party"; "the nub of the story"


L
lab ; laboratory
a workplace for the conduct of scientific research

library
a building that houses a collection of books and other materials

linguistics
the scientific study of language

liquid
a substance that is liquid at room temperature and pressure

liquid
existing as or having characteristics of a liquid; especially tending to flow; "water and milk and blood are liquid substances"

logic
the branch of philosophy that analyzes inference


M
machine
any mechanical or electrical device that transmits or modifies energy to perform or assist in the performance of human tasks

magnetism ; magnetics
the branch of science that studies magnetism

mass
the property of a body that causes it to have weight in a gravitational field

mathematical proof
proof of a mathematical theorem

mathematics ; math
a science (or group of related sciences) dealing with the logic of quantity and shape and arrangement

matter
that which has mass and occupies space; "physicists study both the nature of matter and the forces which govern it"

mechanism
device consisting of a piece of machinery; has moving parts that perform some function

mention ; reference
a remark that calls attention to something or someone; "she made frequent mention of her promotion"; "there was no mention of it"; "the speaker made several references to his wife"

metallurgy
the science and technology of metals

meteorology
the earth science dealing with phenomena of the atmosphere (especially weather)

method
a way of doing something, especially a systematic way; implies an orderly logical arrangement (usually in steps)

microbiology
the branch of biology that studies microorganisms and their effects on humans

microscope
magnifier of the image of small objects; "the invention of the microscope led to the discovery of the cell"

mineralogy
the branch of geology that studies minerals: their structure and properties and the ways of distinguishing them

mixture
(chemistry) a substance consisting of two or more substances mixed together (not in fixed proportions and not with chemical bonding)

model
a type of product; "his car was an old model"

molecule
(physics and chemistry) the simplest structural unit of an element or compound


N
natural gas ; gas
a fossil fuel in the gaseous state; used for cooking and heating homes

natural science
the sciences involved in the study of the physical world and its phenomena

negation
(logic) a proposition that is true if and only if another proposition is false

negative
characterized by or displaying negation or denial or opposition or resistance; having no positive features; "a negative outlook on life"; "a colorless negative personality"; "a negative evaluation"; "a negative reaction to an advertising campaign"

negative
a piece of photographic film showing an image with light and shade or colors reversed

net ; network ; mesh
an open fabric of string or rope or wire woven together at regular intervals

network ; web
an interconnected system of things or people; "he owned a network of shops"; "retirement meant dropping out of a whole network of people who had been part of my life"; "tangled in a web of cloth"

neuroscience
the scientific study of the nervous system

nucleus
the positively charged dense center of an atom


O
observation ; observance ; watching
the act of observing; taking a patient look

oceanography ; oceanology
the branch of science dealing with physical and biological aspects of the oceans

organ
a fully differentiated structural and functional unit in an animal that is specialized for some particular function

organism ; being
a living thing that has (or can develop) the ability to act or function independently


P
parameter
any factor that defines a system and determines (or limits) its performance

particle ; corpuscle
(nontechnical usage) a tiny piece of anything

pharmacology
the science or study of drugs: their preparation and properties and uses and effects

phase ; stage
any distinct time period in a sequence of events; "we are in a transitional stage in which many former ideas must be revised or rejected"

philosophy
the rational investigation of questions about existence and knowledge and ethics

physics ; natural philosophy
the science of matter and energy and their interactions; "his favorite subject was physics"

plan
a series of steps to be carried out or goals to be accomplished; "they drew up a six-step plan"; "they discussed plans for a new bond issue"

plasma
(physical chemistry) a fourth state of matter distinct from solid or liquid or gas and present in stars and fusion reactors; a gas becomes a plasma when it is heated until the atoms lose all their electrons, leaving a highly electrified collection of nuclei and free electrons; "particles in space exist in the form of a plasma"

power ; force
one possessing or exercising power or influence or authority; "the mysterious presence of an evil power"; "may the force be with you"; "the forces of evil"

procedure ; process
a particular course of action intended to achieve a result; "the procedure of obtaining a driver's license"; "it was a process of trial and error"

process ; physical process
a sustained phenomenon or one marked by gradual changes through a series of states; "events now in process"; "the process of calcification begins later for boys than for girls"

production
(economics) manufacturing or mining or growing something (usually in large quantities) for sale; "he introduced more efficient methods of production"

professor ; prof
someone who is a member of the faculty at a college or university

professorship ; chair
the position of professor; "he was awarded an endowed chair in economics"

program ; programme ; computer program ; computer programme
(computer science) a sequence of instructions that a computer can interpret and execute; "the program required several hundred lines of code"

project ; projection
a planned undertaking

proof ; cogent evidence
any factual evidence that helps to establish the truth of something; "if you have any proof for what you say, now is the time to produce it"

proton
a stable particle with positive charge equal to the negative charge of an electron

prototype ; paradigm ; epitome
a standard or typical example; "he is the prototype of good breeding"; "he provided America with an image of the good father"

pseudoscience
an activity resembling science but based on fallacious assumptions

psychology ; psychological science
the science of mental life

publication
a copy of a printed work offered for distribution

purpose ; function
what something is used for; "the function of an auger is to bore holes"; "ballet is beautiful but what use is it?"


Q
question ; inquiry ; enquiry ; query
an instance of questioning; "there was a question about my training"; "we made inquiries of all those who were present"


R
range ; scope
an area in which something acts or operates or has power or control: "the range of a supersonic jet"; "a piano has a greater range than the human voice"; "the ambit of municipal legislation"; "within the compass of this article"; "within the scope of an investigation"; "outside the reach of the law"; "in the political orbit of a world power"

relation
an abstraction belonging to or characteristic of two entities or parts together

remark ; comment
a statement that expresses a personal opinion or belief or adds information; "from time to time she contributed a personal comment on his account"

replica
copy that is not the original; something that has been copied

reproduction ; replication
the act of making copies; "Gutenberg's reproduction of holy texts was far more efficient"

research
systematic investigation to establish facts

research ; explore
inquire into; "the students had to research the history of the Second World War for their history project"; "He searched for information on his relatives on the web"; "Scientists are exploring the nature of consciousness"

research ; inquiry ; enquiry
a search for knowledge; "their pottery deserves more research than it has received"

researcher
a scientist who devotes himself to doing research

result ; outcome
something that results; "he listened for the results on the radio"

review
a subsequent examination of a patient for the purpose of monitoring earlier treatment

reviewer
someone who reads manuscripts and judges their suitability for publication

robot
a mechanism that can move automatically

rule ; principle
a basic generalization that is accepted as true and that can be used as a basis for reasoning or conduct; "their principles of composition characterized all their works"

rule ; regulation
a principle or condition that customarily governs behavior; "it was his rule to take a walk before breakfast"; "short haircuts were the regulation"


S
scheduling
setting an order and time for planned events

science ; scientific discipline
a particular branch of scientific knowledge; "the science of genetics"

scientific method
a method of investigation involving observation and theory to test scientific hypotheses

scientist
a person with advanced knowledge of one or more sciences

society
an extended social group having a distinctive cultural and economic organization

sociology
the study and classification of human societies

software
(computer science) written programs or procedures or rules and associated documentation pertaining to the operation of a computer system and that are stored in read/write memory; "the market for software is expected to expand"

solution ; answer ; resolution
a statement that solves a problem or explains how to solve the problem; "they were trying to find a peaceful solution"; "the answers were in the back of the book"; "he computed the result to four decimal places"

speculation
a message expressing an opinion based on incomplete evidence

speed ; velocity
distance travelled per unit time

sphere ; domain ; area ; field
a particular environment or walk of life; "his social sphere is limited"; "it was a closed area of employment"; "he's out of my orbit"

spreadsheet
a screen-oriented interactive program enabling a user to lay out financial data on the screen

statistics
a branch of applied mathematics concerned with the collection and interpretation of quantitative data and the use of probability theory to estimate population parameters

strength ; force
physical energy or intensity; "he hit with all the force he could muster"; "it was destroyed by the strength of the gale"; "a government has not the vitality and forcefulness of a living man"

structure
the manner of construction of something and the arrangement of its parts; "artists must study the structure of the human body"; "the structure of the benzene molecule"

subject ; dependent
being under the power or sovereignty of another or others; "subject peoples"; "a dependent prince"

substance
the real physical matter of which a person or thing consists; "DNA is the substance of our genes"

superconductivity
the disappearance of electrical resistance at very low temperatures

system ; scheme
a group of independent but interrelated elements comprising a unified whole; "a vast system of production and distribution and consumption keep the country going"


T
table ; tabular array
a set of data arranged in rows and columns; "see table 1"

taxonomy
a classification of organisms into groups based on similarities of structure or origin etc

technique
a practical method or art applied to some particular task

technology
the discipline dealing with the art or science of applying scientific knowledge to practical problems; "he had trouble deciding which branch of engineering to study"

technology ; engineering
the practical application of science to commerce or industry

temperature
the degree of hotness or coldness of a body or environment (corresponding to its molecular activity)

termination ; ending ; conclusion
the act of ending something; "the termination of the agreement"

test ; trial
the act of testing something; "in the experimental trials the amount of carbon was measured separately"; "he called each flip of the coin a new trial"

test ; trial
the act of undergoing testing; "he survived the great test of battle"; "candidates must compete in a trial of skill"

test ; try ; try out ; examine
put to the test, as for its quality, or give experimental use to; "This approach has been tried with good results"; "Test this recipe"

test tube
glass tube closed at one end

theory
a well-substantiated explanation of some aspect of the natural world; an organized system of accepted knowledge that applies in a variety of circumstances to explain a specific set of phenomena; "theories can incorporate facts and laws and tested hypotheses"; "true in fact and theory"

thesis
an unproved statement put forward as a premise in an argument

trend ; tendency
a general direction in which something tends to move; "the shoreward tendency of the current"; "the trend of the stock market"

trouble ; problem
a source of difficulty; "one trouble after another delayed the job"; "what's the problem?"


U
university
a large and diverse institution of higher learning created to educate for life and for a profession and to grant degrees

university
the body of faculty and students at a university

university
establishment where a seat of higher learning is housed, including administrative and living quarters as well as facilities for research and teaching

user
a person who makes use of a thing; someone who uses or employs something


V
validation
the act of validating; finding or testing the truth of something

variable
a symbol (like x or y) that is used in mathematical or logical expressions to represent a variable quantity

variable
liable to or capable of change; "rainfall in the tropics is notoriously variable"; "variable winds"; "variable expenses"

varying ; variable
marked by diversity or difference; "the varying angles of roof slope"; "nature is infinitely variable"


Z
zoology ; zoological science
the branch of biology that studies animals


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