English dictionary of Statistics

English dictionary of Statistics

 English dictionary of Statistics

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A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

A
ability ; power
possession of the qualities (especially mental qualities) required to do something or get something done; "danger heightened his powers of discrimination"

aim ; object ; objective ; target
the goal intended to be attained (and which is believed to be attainable); "the sole object of her trip was to see her children"

allowance ; leeway ; margin
a permissible difference; allowing some freedom to move within limits

analysis ; analytic thinking
the abstract separation of a whole into its constituent parts in order to study the parts and their relations

answer ; reply ; response
a statement (either spoken or written) that is made to reply to a question or request or criticism or accusation; "I waited several days for his answer"; "he wrote replies to several of his critics"

arithmetic mean
the sum of the values of a random variable divided by the number of values

ascribe
attribute or credit to; "We attributed this quotation to Shakespeare"; "People impute great cleverness to cats"

association
a formal organization of people or groups of people; "he joined the Modern Language Association"

average ; mean
approximating the statistical norm or average or expected value; "the average income in New England is below that of the nation"; "of average height for his age"; "the mean annual rainfall"


B
betoken ; indicate ; point ; signal
be a signal for or a symptom of; "These symptoms indicate a serious illness"; "Her behavior points to a severe neurosis"; "The economic indicators signal that the euro is undervalued"

bias ; prejudice ; preconception
a partiality that prevents objective consideration of an issue or situation

binomial distribution ; Bernoulli distribution
a theoretical distribution of the number of successes in a finite set of independent trials with a constant probability of success


C
category
a collection of things sharing a common attribute; "there are two classes of detergents"

centroid
the center of mass of an object of uniform density

chart
a visual display of information

cluster ; bunch ; clump
a grouping of a number of similar things; "a bunch of trees"; "a cluster of admirers"

coefficient
a constant number that serves as a measure of some property or characteristic

complexity ; complexness
the quality of being intricate and compounded; "he enjoyed the complexity of modern computers"

component
an artifact that is one of the individual parts of which a composite entity is made up; especially a part that can be separated from or attached to a system; "spare components for cars"; "a component or constituent element of a system"

computer ; calculator ; reckoner
an expert at calculation (or at operating calculating machines)

consequence ; effect ; outcome ; result ; issue
a phenomenon that follows and is caused by some previous phenomenon; "the magnetic effect was greater when the rod was lengthwise"; "his decision had depressing consequences for business"; "he acted very wise after the event"

convention ; rule
something regarded as a normative example; "the convention of not naming the main character"; "violence is the rule not the exception"; "his formula for impressing visitors"

correlation
a statistic representing how closely two variables co-vary; it can vary from -1 (perfect negative correlation) through 0 (no correlation) to +1 (perfect positive correlation); "what is the correlation between those two variables?"

course ; line
a connected series of events or actions or developments; "the government took a firm course"; "historians can only point out those lines for which evidence is available"

covariance
(statistics) the mean value of the product of the deviations of two variates from their respective means


D
data ; information
a collection of facts from which conclusions may be drawn; "statistical data"

data mining
data processing using sophisticated data search capabilities and statistical algorithms to discover patterns and correlations in large preexisting databases; a way to discover new meaning in data

density ; denseness
the amount per unit size

dependability ; dependableness ; reliability
the quality of being dependable or reliable

deviation
a variation that deviates from the standard or norm; "the deviation from the mean"

deviation ; deviance
deviate behavior

difference
the quality of being unlike or dissimilar; "there are many differences between jazz and rock"

discrepancy
a difference between conflicting facts or claims or opinions; "a growing divergence of opinion"

discrete ; distinct
constituting a separate entity or part; "a government with three discrete divisions"; "on two distinct occasions"

dispersion ; dispersal
the act of dispersing or diffusing something; "the dispersion of the troops"; "the diffusion of knowledge"

dispute ; conflict
a disagreement or argument about something important; "he had a dispute with his wife"; "there were irreconcilable differences"; "the familiar conflict between Republicans and Democrats"

distribution
the commercial activity of transporting and selling goods from a producer to a consumer

distribution ; dispersion
the spatial or geographic property of being scattered about over a range, area, or volume; "worldwide in distribution"; "the distribution of nerve fibers"; "in complementary distribution"

divisor ; factor
one of two or more integers that can be exactly divided into another integer; "what are the 4 factors of 6?"

draw ; describe
make a mark or lines on a surface; "draw a line"; "trace the outline of a figure in the sand"


E
econometrics
the application of mathematics and statistics to the study of economic and financial data

efficiency
skillfulness in avoiding wasted time and effort; "she did the work with great efficiency"

element
an abstract part of something; "jealousy was a component of his character"; "two constituents of a musical composition are melody and harmony"; "the grammatical elements of a sentence"; "a key factor in her success"; "humor: an effective ingredient of a speech"

entail ; mean
have as a logical consequence; "The water shortage means that we have to stop taking long showers"

entropy
(communication theory) a numerical measure of the uncertainty of an outcome; "the signal contained thousands of bits of information"

equality ; equivalence
a state of being essentially equal or equivalent; equally balanced; "on a par with the best"

equation
a mathematical statement that two expressions are equal

estimate ; gauge ; guess
judge tentatively or form an estimate of (quantities or time); "I estimate this chicken to weigh three pounds"

estimation
an approximate calculation of quantity or degree or worth; "an estimate of what it would cost"; "a rough idea how long it would take"

event
something that happens at a given place and time

event ; case
a special set of circumstances; "in that event, the first possibility is excluded"; "it may rain in which case the picnic will be canceled"

examination ; exam ; test
a set of questions or exercises evaluating skill or knowledge; "when the test was stolen the professor had to make a new set of questions"

experiment ; experimentation
the act of conducting a controlled test or investigation

exponent ; index
a mathematical notation indicating the number of times a quantity is multiplied by itself


F
factor
anything that contributes causally to a result; "a number of factors determined the outcome"

filter
device that removes something from whatever passes through it

filter ; filtrate
remove by passing through a filter; "filter out the impurities"

frequency
the number of occurrences within a given time period; "the frequency of modulation was 40 cycles per second"; "the frequency of his seizures increased as he grew older"

frequency ; relative frequency
the ratio of the number of observations in a statistical category to the total number of observations

function ; office
the actions and activities assigned to or required or expected of a person or group; "the function of a teacher"; "the government must do its part"; "play its role"


G
geometric mean
the mean of n numbers expressed as the n-th root of their product

grade ; mark
a number or letter indicating quality (especially of a student's performance); "she made good marks in algebra"; "grade A milk"; "what was your score on your homework?"

grade ; mark
assign a grade or rank to, according to one's evaluation; "grade tests"; "score the SAT essays"; "mark homework"

graph ; graphical record
a visual representation of the relations between certain quantities plotted with reference to a set of axes


H
histogram
a bar chart representing a frequency distribution; heights of the bars represent observed frequencies

homogeneity ; homogeneousness
the quality of being similar or comparable in kind or nature; "there is a remarkable homogeneity between the two companies"

hypothesis
a tentative insight into the natural world; a concept that is not yet verified but that if true would explain certain facts or phenomena; "a scientific hypothesis that survives experimental testing becomes a scientific theory"; "he proposed a fresh theory of alkalis that later was accepted in chemical practices"


I
indicator
a device for showing the operating condition of some system

inference ; illation
the reasoning involved in drawing a conclusion or making a logical judgment on the basis of circumstantial evidence and prior conclusions rather than on the basis of direct observation

information
knowledge acquired through study or experience or instruction

information ; info
a message received and understood

interaction
a mutual or reciprocal action; interacting

interval
a set containing all points (or all real numbers) between two given endpoints


L
law
legal document setting forth rules governing a particular kind of activity; "there is a law against kidnapping"

line
a mark that is long relative to its width; "He drew a line on the chart"

line
text consisting of a row of words written across a page or computer screen; "the letter consisted of three short lines"; "there are six lines in every stanza"


M
manner ; mode ; style ; way ; fashion
how something is done or how it happens; "her dignified manner"; "his rapid manner of talking"; "their nomadic mode of existence"; "in the characteristic New York style"; "a lonely way of life"; "in an abrasive fashion"

margin ; border
the boundary line or the area immediately inside the boundary

mark
a distinguishing symbol; "the owner's mark was on all the sheep"

mean ; hateful
characterized by malice; "a hateful thing to do"; "in a mean mood"

mean ; intend
mean or intend to express or convey; "You never understand what I mean!"; "what do his words intend?"

mean ; mean value
an average of n numbers computed by adding some function of the numbers and dividing by some function of n

mean ; signify ; stand for
denote or connote; "`maison' means `house' in French"; "An example sentence would show what this word means"

median ; median value
the value below which 50% of the cases fall

mistake ; error ; fault
a wrong action attributable to bad judgment or ignorance or inattention; "he made a bad mistake"; "she was quick to point out my errors"; "I could understand his English in spite of his grammatical faults"

multiple
having or involving or consisting of more than one part or entity or individual; "multiple birth"; "multiple ownership"; "made multiple copies of the speech"; "his multiple achievements in public life"; "her multiple personalities"; "a pineapple is a multiple fruit"

multiple
the product of a quantity by an integer; "36 is a multiple of 9"


N
nominal
relating to or constituting or bearing or giving a name; "the Russian system of nominal brevity"; "a nominal lists of priests"; "taxable males as revealed by the nominal rolls"

normal
conforming with or constituting a norm or standard or level or type or social norm; not abnormal; "serve wine at normal room temperature"; "normal diplomatic relations"; "normal working hours"; "normal word order"; "normal curiosity"; "the normal course of events"

normal distribution ; Gaussian distribution
a theoretical distribution with finite mean and variance

normality ; normalcy
being within certain limits that define the range of normal functioning

number
a concept of quantity involving zero and units; "every number has a unique position in the sequence"

number
give numbers to; "You should number the pages of the thesis"

numeral ; number
a symbol used to represent a number; "he learned to write the numerals before he went to school"


O
objective ; nonsubjective
undistorted by emotion or personal bias; based on observable phenomena; "an objective appraisal"; "objective evidence"


P
parameter
any factor that defines a system and determines (or limits) its performance

part ; portion
something determined in relation to something that includes it; "he wanted to feel a part of something bigger than himself"; "I read a portion of the manuscript"; "the smaller component is hard to reach"; "the animal constituent of plankton"

permeate ; filter
pass through; "Water permeates sand easily"

polynomial ; multinomial
a mathematical function that is the sum of a number of terms

population
the people who inhabit a territory or state; "the population seemed to be well fed and clothed"

postpone ; hold over ; shelve ; defer ; put off
hold back to a later time; "let's postpone the exam"

preciseness ; precision
the quality of being reproducible in amount or performance; "he handled it with the preciseness of an automaton"; "note the meticulous precision of his measurements"

probability ; chance
a measure of how likely it is that some event will occur; a number expressing the ratio of favorable cases to the whole number of cases possible; "the probability that an unbiased coin will fall with the head up is 0.5"

property ; attribute
a construct whereby objects or individuals can be distinguished; "self-confidence is not an endearing property"

purpose ; function
what something is used for; "the function of an auger is to bore holes"; "ballet is beautiful but what use is it?"


Q
quartile
(statistics) any of three points that divide an ordered distribution into four parts each containing one quarter of the scores

quiz ; test
examine someone's knowledge of something; "The teacher tests us every week"; "We got quizzed on French irregular verbs"


R
random
lacking any definite plan or order or purpose; governed by or depending on chance; "a random choice"; "bombs fell at random"; "random movements"

random variable ; variate
a variable quantity that is random

range ; scope
an area in which something acts or operates or has power or control: "the range of a supersonic jet"; "a piano has a greater range than the human voice"; "the ambit of municipal legislation"; "within the compass of this article"; "within the scope of an investigation"; "outside the reach of the law"; "in the political orbit of a world power"

rate ; grade
assign a rank or rating to; "how would you rank these students?"; "The restaurant is rated highly in the food guide"

ratio
the relative magnitudes of two quantities (usually expressed as a quotient)

reach ; range
the limits within which something can be effective; "range of motion"; "he was beyond the reach of their fire"

regression
returning to a former state

remainder ; difference
the number that remains after subtraction; the number that when added to the subtrahend gives the minuend

repeat
make or do or perform again; "He could never replicate his brilliant performance of the magic trick"

reproducibility ; duplicability
the quality of being reproducible

reproduction ; replication
the act of making copies; "Gutenberg's reproduction of holy texts was far more efficient"

residual ; residuary
relating to or indicating a remainder; "residual quantity"

resistance
any mechanical force that tends to retard or oppose motion

rest ; remainder ; balance ; residue ; residuum
something left after other parts have been taken away; "there was no remainder"; "he threw away the rest"; "he took what he wanted and I got the balance"

robustness
the property of being strong and healthy in constitution

row
an arrangement of objects or people side by side in a line; "a row of chairs"


S
sample
a small part of something intended as representative of the whole

sample ; try ; try out ; taste
take a sample of; "Try these new crackers"; "Sample the regional dishes"

sampling
(statistics) the selection of a suitable sample for study

scarcity ; scarceness
a small and inadequate amount

sensitivity ; sensitiveness ; sensibility
(physiology) responsiveness to external stimuli; the faculty of sensation; "sensitivity to pain"

sign
a character indicating a relation between quantities; "don't forget the minus sign"

sign ; mark
a perceptible indication of something not immediately apparent (as a visible clue that something has happened); "he showed signs of strain"; "they welcomed the signs of spring"

sign ; ratify
approve and express assent, responsibility, or obligation; "All parties ratified the peace treaty"; "Have you signed your contract yet?"

signal ; sign
any nonverbal action or gesture that encodes a message; "signals from the boat suddenly stopped"

simulation ; computer simulation
(computer science) the technique of representing the real world by a computer program; "a simulation should imitate the internal processes and not merely the results of the thing being simulated"

singularity ; uniqueness
the quality of being one of a kind; "that singularity distinguished him from all his companions"

spectrum
an ordered array of the components of an emission or wave

speculation
a message expressing an opinion based on incomplete evidence

square
having four equal sides and four right angles or forming a right angle; "a square peg in a round hole"; "a square corner"

square ; foursquare
(geometry) a plane rectangle with four equal sides and four right angles; a four-sided regular polygon; "you can compute the area of a square if you know the length of its sides"

square ; second power
the product of two equal terms; "nine is the second power of three"; "gravity is inversely proportional to the square of the distance"

standard deviation
the square root of the variance

statistics
a branch of applied mathematics concerned with the collection and interpretation of quantitative data and the use of probability theory to estimate population parameters

stochastic process
a statistical process involving a number of random variables depending on a variable parameter (which is usually time)

survey ; study
a detailed critical inspection


T
table ; tabular array
a set of data arranged in rows and columns; "see table 1"

target ; aim
intend (something) to move towards a certain goal; "He aimed his fists towards his opponent's face"; "criticism directed at her superior"; "direct your anger towards others, not towards yourself"

test ; trial
the act of testing something; "in the experimental trials the amount of carbon was measured separately"; "he called each flip of the coin a new trial"

test ; trial
the act of undergoing testing; "he survived the great test of battle"; "candidates must compete in a trial of skill"

test ; try ; try out ; examine
put to the test, as for its quality, or give experimental use to; "This approach has been tried with good results"; "Test this recipe"

total ; number ; add up
add up in number or quantity; "The bills amounted to $2,000"; "The bill came to $2,000"

transformation ; translation
the act of changing in form or shape or appearance; "a photograph is a translation of a scene onto a two-dimensional surface"

transformation ; transmutation
a qualitative change

trial ; tryout
trying something to find out about it; "a sample for ten days free trial"; "a trial of progesterone failed to relieve the pain"

tune ; melody
a succession of notes forming a distinctive sequence; "she was humming an air from Beethoven"


U
unit ; unit of measurement
any division of quantity accepted as a standard of measurement or exchange; "the dollar is the United States unit of currency"; "a unit of wheat is a bushel"; "change per unit volume"


V
validity ; validness
the quality of having legal force or effectiveness

variability ; variableness
the quality of being subject to variation

variable
a symbol (like x or y) that is used in mathematical or logical expressions to represent a variable quantity

variable
liable to or capable of change; "rainfall in the tropics is notoriously variable"; "variable winds"; "variable expenses"

variance
the second moment around the mean; the expected value of the square of the deviations of a random variable from its mean value

variation
a repetition of a musical theme in which it is modified or embellished

version ; variant
something a little different from others of the same type; "an experimental version of the night fighter"; "a variant of the same word"; "an emery wheel is the modern variation of a grindstone"; "the boy is a younger edition of his father"


W
wander ; stray ; tramp ; roam ; rove
move about aimlessly or without any destination, often in search of food or employment; "The gypsies roamed the woods"; "roving vagabonds"; "the wandering Jew"; "The cattle roam across the prairie"; "the laborers drift from one town to the next"; "They rolled from town to town"

white noise
a noise produced by a stimulus containing all of the audible frequencies of vibration; "white noise is a good masking agent"

whole ; unit
an assemblage of parts that is regarded as a single entity; "how big is that part compared to the whole?"; "the team is a unit"

work ; function ; operate
perform as expected when applied; "The washing machine won't go unless it's plugged in"; "Does this old car still run well?"; "This old radio doesn't work anymore"


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